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Albanien Vs

Albanien Vs Albanien vs. Frankreich: Das Spiel der EM-Qualifikation im Überblick

Albanien. nicht ausgetragen. Albanien · Albanien · Albanien · -: . n.a.. Slowenien · Slowenien. Nations League C / - Gruppe 4. 20​ Spiel-Bilanz aller Duelle zwischen Albanien und Türkei sowie die letzten Spiele untereinander. Darstellung der Heimbilanz von Albanien gegen Türkei. Als die Schmach von Tirana ging das Fußballspiel der deutschen Nationalmannschaft gegen die albanische Nationalmannschaft vom Dezember in die. Juni gegen die Schweiz in Genf. Diese Liste enthält alle offiziell von der FIFA anerkannten Länderspiele der albanischen Fußballnationalmannschaft der​. Direkter Vergleich. Begegnungen: 12; Siege Albanien: 4; Siege Türkei: 6; Unentschieden: 2; Torverhältnis:

Albanien Vs

Direkter Vergleich. Begegnungen: 12; Siege Albanien: 4; Siege Türkei: 6; Unentschieden: 2; Torverhältnis: Albanien. nicht ausgetragen. Albanien · Albanien · Albanien · -: . n.a.. Slowenien · Slowenien. Nations League C / - Gruppe 4. 20​ Genaue Prognose zum Albanien vs. Andorra Tipp am Neben dem Tipp, Quoten und einer Prognose informieren wir Sie auch über.

Albanien Vs Video

Serbia vs Albania - Full Report Albanien Vs Iran hat in dieser Hinsicht stabile und erprobte Kapazitäten. Deshalb wird Wer Hat Eurojackpot Gewonnen Heimsieg wahrscheinlich ohne Gegentreffer ausfallen und jedes Handicap lohnt sich damit mehr als ein Tipp auf viele Treffer. Das Ziel lautete, sich möglichst teuer zu verkaufen und im besten Fall noch den einen oder anderen Punkt zu Ski Seefeld. Namensräume Artikel Diskussion. Serravalle SMR. Patras GRC. Deutschkurse Podcasts. Sieg Albanien : 1. Seenotretter erhoffen sich Beste Spielothek in Auf dem Schilde finden ein Signal. Die neun Punkte Unterschied in der Tabelle und das deutliche Hinspiel, welches Albanien auswärts Beste Spielothek in Eberstall finden gewinnen konnte, sprechen ebenfalls eine klare Sprache. Tomorri sah in der Gegen die Topteams gab es nur Niederlagen, während gegen Moldawien und Andorra bisher die Maximalausbeute heraussprang. Insgesamt lassen sich die Partien recht einfach strukturieren. Stettin POL.

Appendice al saggio di grammatologia comparata sulla lingua albanese. Prato, Campbell, George L. Compendium of the World's Languages , 2nd edn.

London—NY: Routledge, , pp. Demiraj, Bardhyl. Albanische Etymologien: Untersuchungen zum albanischen Erbwortschatz. Amsterdam—Atlanta: Rodopi, Demiraj, Shaban.

London-NY: Routledge, , pp. Gjuha shqipe dhe historia e saj. Akademia e Shkencave e Shqiperise. Instituti i Gjuhesise dhe i Letersise.

Tirana: Shkenca, De Simone, Carlo. Tentativo di una definizione", Iliria 1 Desnickaja, Agnija. Albanskij jazyk i ego dialekty. Leningrad: Nauka, Osnovy balkanskogo jazykoznanija.

Domi, Mahir. Fortson IV, Benjamin W. Malden: Wiley-Blackwell, , pp. Blackwell Publishing. Edited by Glanville Price.

Oxford: Blackwell, , pp. Gjinari, Jorgji. Dialektologjia shqiptare. Pristina: Universiteti, Hamp, Eric P. Edited by R.

Oxford: Pergamon, , pp. Huld, Martin E. Basic Albanian Etymologies. Columbus, OH: Slavica Publishers, Ancient Languages of the Balkans.

The Hague—Paris: Mouton, Kocaqi, Altin. Albania: Marin Barleti, Kopitar, Jernej K. Kretschmer, Paul. Einleitung in die Geschichte der griechischen Sprache.

Göttingen, Lloshi, Xhevat. Oktober in Berlin. Berlin: Otto Harrassowitz, , pp. Edited by Uwe Hinrichs. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, , pp.

Skopje—Pristina—Tirana: Logos-A, Lambertz, Maximilian. Lehrgang des Albanischen. Mallory, J. London: Fitzroy Dearborn, , pp.

Matzinger, Joachim. Munich: R. Oldenburg Verlag, , pp. Edited by Wolfgang Dahmen et al. Tübingen: Narr Verlag, , pp. Mayer, Anton. Die Sprache der alten Illyrier.

Mann, Stuart E. An Albanian Historical Grammar. Hamburg: Helmut Buske, Meyer, Gustav. Miklosich, Franz. Albanische Forschungen.

Vienna: Karl Gerold's Sohn, Stanford: Stanford University Press, Ölberg, Hermann. Edited by Hermann M. Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachwissenschaft der Universität Innsbruck, Pedersen, Holger.

Kopenhagen: Gyldendal, , pp. Erlangen Pellegrini, Giovan Battista. Avviamento alla linguistica albanese. Edizione rinnovata. Pisani, Vittore.

Brussels, , pp. Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachwissenschaft der Universität Innsbruck, , pp. Orel, Vladimir. Albanian Etymological Dictionary.

Leiden: Brill, Riza, Selman. Studime albanistike. Pristina Rusakov, Alexander The Indo-European Languages 2nd ed. Svane, Gunnar.

Slavische Lehnwörter im Albanischen. Tagliavini, Carlo. La stratificazione del lessico albanese: Elementi indoeuropei. Bologna: Casa editrice Prof.

Thumb, Albert. Albanesische Studien. Jena: F. Mauko, Watkins, Calvert. Ylli, Xhelal. Das slawische Lehngut im Albanischen.

Albanskii gegskii govor sela Muhurr. Munich: Biblion Verlag, Walter de Gruyter. Constitution of Montenegro.

Serbian, Bosnian, Albanian and Croatian shall also be in the official use. European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In Fäcke, Christiane ed.

Manual of Language Acquisition. Walter de Gruyter GmbH. Council of Europe. Archived from the original on 8 December Retrieved 3 December Glottolog 3.

Balkan Insight. Retrieved 17 January Teil, Leipzig, Origins: Serbs, Vlachs, and Albanians. Malcolm is of the opinion that the Albanian language was an Illyrian dialect preserved in Dardania and then it re-?

Iliri 2nd edition. Mallory, Douglas Q. Madrid: Gredos. Adams January Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. The Greek and Latin loans have undergone most of the far-reaching phonological changes which have so altered the shape of inherited words while Slavic and Turkish words do not show those changes.

Thus Albanian must have acquired much of its present form by the time Slavs entered into Balkans in the fifth and sixth centuries AD [ Leiden: Brill.

It must be relatively old, that is, dating back into the post-Roman first millennium. Brussels: European Commission.

Retrieved 5 December Archived from the original on 21 January Retrieved 2 January The Albanian Language.

Statistics of Italy. Retrieved 1 April Archived from the original PDF on 16 September Retrieved 9 July There are upwards of 5 million ethnic Albanians in the Turkish Republic; however, the vast majority of this population is assimilated and no longer possesses fluency in the language, though a vibrant Albanian community maintains its distinct identity in Istanbul to this day.

Egypt also lays claim to some 18, Albanians, supposedly lingering remnants of Mohammad Ali's army. European Journal of Language and Literature.

Retrieved 29 March Albanian Alphabets: Borrowed and Invented. Indo-European language and culture: an introduction.

Retrieved 28 May London: Routledge, Migrations and invasions in Greece and adjacent areas. Noyes Press. Historical Dictionary of Albania.

The Early medieval Balkans. University of Michigan Press, Woodard The ancient languages of Europe. The modern Albanian language, it has been conjectured, is descendent directly from ancient Illyrian Retrieved 31 March It is generally accepted that Albanians continue one of the ancient languages of the Balkans, although scholars disagree on which language they spoke and what area of the Balkans they occupied before the Slavs' migration to the Balkans.

The most probable predecessor of Albanian was Illyrian, since much of the present-day Albania was inhabited by the Illyrians during the Antiquity, but the comparison of the two languages is impossible because almost nothing is known about Illyrian It is a-priori less probable to assume that a single language was spoken in the whole Illyricum, from the river Arsia in Istria, to Epirus in Greece, when such a linguistic uniformity is found nowhere else in Europe before the Roman conquest.

Moreover, the examination of personal names and toponyms from Illyricum shows that several onomastic areas can be distinguished, and these onomastic areas just might correspond to different languages spoken in ancient Illyricum.

General issues and non-Germanic Languages. Historical Linguistics Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing. Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter.

The evolution of Albanian". De Gruyter Mouton. Mallory; Douglas Q. Adams Encyclopedia of Indo-European culture. International Journal of the Sociology of Language.

Retrieved 26 May Tirana: Academy of Sciences of Albania. A concise historical grammar of the Albanian language: reconstruction of Proto-Albanian.

Retrieved 16 December Albanian literature: a short history. Institute of Acoustics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences.

Retrieved 15 December Bloomington: Indiana University Pub. National Library of Albania. Retrieved 14 May Page 6. Trask's Historical Linguistics.

Albanian seems to have lost more than 90 per cent of its original vocabulary in favour of loans from Latin, Greek, Hungarian, Slavonic, Italian and Turkish.

University of Texas at Austin. Retrieved 27 January Instytut Slawistyki Polskiej Akademii Nauk, Page "Even according to Albanian linguists, Albanian vocabulary is composed in 60 percent of Latin words from different periods When albanological studies were just emerging, it happened that Albanian was classified as a Romance language.

Already there exists the idea of a common origin of both Albanian and Rumanian languages. The Rumanian grammar is almost identical to that of Albanian, but it may be as well the effect of later convergence within the Balkan Sprachbund..

Page Brill, Leiden. Alternative Transport. Mann The Etruscans begin to speak. Souvenir Press.

Archived from the original on 17 June The Illyrians: history and culture. Language, Volumes 1—3. Linguistic Society of America. Millennium Studies.

Homeric whispers: intimations of orthodoxy in the Iliad and Odyssey. Albanien: Schätze aus dem Land der Skipetaren. Hamburg: Buske. Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung.

Slavic-Albanian language contact, convergence, and coexistence. The number of loanwords is not necessarily a compelling argument for geographical placement, as loanwords may be replaced in subsequent developments of the language especially considering the copious borrowing that Albanian later did from Latin and Slavic before any lexicon of Albanian was ever compiled The loan words from Greek and Latin date back to before the Christian era and suggest that the ancestors of the Albanians must have occupied Albania by then to have absorbed such loans from their historical neighbors.

As the Illyrians occupied the Albanian territory at this time, they are the most likely recipients of such loans. Latin loanwords are of extreme importance for the history of Albanian phonology, especially its vocalism.

The duration of the borrowing was so long that loanwords reflect several distinct chronological stages. One other point that some scholars make is the fact that Albanian and Romanian share many lexical items; this has led some to believe that Albanian originated east of its present geographical spread Georgiev ; Hamp Les mots latins de l'albanais.

Paris: L'Harmattan. Wir sind die Deinen. Harrassowitz Verlag. Articles related to the Albanian language.

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Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons Wikibooks Wikivoyage. Latin Albanian alphabet Albanian Braille. Issues of ethnicity are a delicate topic and subject to debate.

Contrary to official statistics that show an over 97 per cent Albanian majority in the country, minority groups such as Greeks , Macedonians , Montenegrins , Roma and Aromanians have frequently disputed the official numbers, asserting a higher percentage of the country's population.

According to the disputed census, ethnic affiliation was as follows: Albanians 2,, The estimates vary between 60, and , ethnic Greeks in Albania.

According to Ian Jeffries, most of Western sources put the number at around , The , mark is supported by Greek government as well. The US State Department uses 1.

This is claimed to be an attempt to intimidate minorities into declaring Albanian ethnicity, according to them the Albanian government has stated that it will jail anyone who does not participate in the census or refuse to declare his or her ethnicity.

However, they are not forced to answer these sensitive questions". Greek representatives form part of the Albanian parliament and the government has invited Albanian Greeks to register, as the only way to improve their status.

The official language of the country is Albanian which is spoken by the vast majority of the country's population. The Shkumbin river is the rough dividing line between the two dialects.

Also a dialect of Greek that preserves features now lost in standard modern Greek is spoken in areas inhabited by the Greek minority. According to the population census, 2,, or In recent years, the shrinking number of pupils in schools dedicated to the Greek minority has caused problems for teachers.

Italian and French have had a stable interest, while Greek has lost most of the interest. The trends are linked with cultural and economic factors.

Greek is the second most-spoken language in the country, with 0. The young people have shown a growing interest in German language in recent years. Some of them go to Germany for studying or various experiences.

Albania and Germany have agreements for cooperating in helping young people of the two countries know both cultures better.

Young people, attracted by economic importance of Turkish investments and common values between the two nations, gain from cultural and academic collaboration of universities.

Albania, a religiously diverse country, is a secular state with no official religion. Freedom of religion , belief and conscience are guaranteed guaranteed under the country's constitution.

It is widely accepted that Albanians generally value a peaceful coexistence among the believers of different religious communities in the country.

At this point, they were mostly Christianized. Islam arrived for the first time in the late 9th century to the region, when Arabs raided parts of the eastern banks of the Adriatic Sea.

During modern times , the Albanian republican, monarchic and later communist regimes followed a systematic policy of separating religion from official functions and cultural life.

The country has never had an official religion either as a republic or as a kingdom. In the 20th century, the clergy of all faiths was weakened under the monarchy and ultimately eradicated during the s and s, under the state policy of obliterating all organized religion from the territories of Albania.

The communist regime persecuted and suppressed religious observance and institutions and entirely banned religion. The country was then officially declared to be the world's first atheist state.

Although, the country's religious freedom has returned, since the end of communism. Islam survived communist era persecution and reemerged in the modern era as a practiced religion in Albania.

Due to that, he was arrested and imprisoned by the Ottoman authorities in First evangelical Protestants appeared in the 19th century and the Evangelical Alliance was founded in Nowadays, it has member congregations from different Protestant denominations.

Following the mass emigration to Israel, since the fall of communism, only Albanian Jews are left in the country.

As of the census , there were 1,, Orthodox and Bektashis are mostly found in the south, whereas Catholics mainly live in the north. Albania shares many symbols associated with its history, culture and belief.

These include the colours red and black, animals such as the golden eagle living across the country, costumes such as the fustanella , plis and opinga which are worn to special events and celebrations, plants such as the olive and red poppy growing as well across the country.

The flag of Albania is a red flag with a black double-headed eagle in the centre. Throughout the centuries, Albanian cuisine has been widely influenced by Albanian culture , geography and history , and as such, different parts of the country enjoy specific regional cuisines.

Cooking traditions especially vary between the north and the south, owing to differing topography and climate that essentially contribute to the excellent growth conditions for a wide array of herbs, fruits, and vegetables.

Albanians produce and use many varieties of fruits such as lemons , oranges, figs , and most notably, olives , which are perhaps the most important element of Albanian cooking.

Spices and other herbs such as basil , lavender , mint , oregano , rosemary , and thyme are widely used, as are vegetables such as garlic, onions, peppers , potatoes, tomatoes, as well as legumes of all types.

With a coastline along the Adriatic and Ionian in the Mediterranean Sea , fish, crustaceans , and seafood are a popular and an integral part of the Albanian diet.

Otherwise, lamb is the traditional meat for different holidays and religious festivals for both Christians and Muslims , although poultry, beef, and pork are also in plentiful supply.

Petulla, a traditional fried dough, is also a popular speciality, and is served with powdered sugar or feta cheese and different sorts of fruit jams.

Krofne , similar to Berliner doughnuts , are filled with jam, or chocolate and often eaten during cold winter months. Coffee is an integral part of the Albanian lifestyle, and Albania has more coffee houses per capita than any other country in the world.

It is cultivated across Southern Albania and noted for its medicinal properties. Black tea with a slice of lemon and sugar, milk, or honey is also popular.

Albanian wine is also common throughout the country, and has been cultivated for thousands of years. Albania has a long and ancient history of wine production, and belongs to the Old World of wine producing countries.

The artistic history of Albania has been particularly influenced by a multitude of ancient and medieval people , traditions and religions.

It covers a broad spectrum with mediums and disciplines that include painting, pottery , sculpture, ceramics and architecture all of them exemplifying a great variety in style and shape, in different regions and period.

The rise of the Byzantine and Ottoman Empire in the Middle Ages was accompanied by a corresponding growth in Christian and Islamic art in the lands of Albania which are apparent in examples of architecture and mosaics throughout the country.

The architecture of Albania reflects the legacy of various civilizations tracing back to the classical antiquity. Major cities in Albania have evolved from within the castle to include dwellings, religious and commercial structures, with constant redesigning of town squares and evolution of building techniques.

Nowadays, the cities and towns reflect a whole spectrum of various architectural styles. In the 20th century, many historical as well as sacred buildings bearing the ancient influence were demolished during the communist era.

Considering the long period of rule of the Byzantine Empire , they introduced castles, citadels, churches and monasteries with spectacular wealth of visible murals and frescos.

The 20th century brought new architectural styles such as the modern Italian style , which is present in Tirana such as the Skanderbeg Square and Ministries.

Moreover, other towns received their present-day Albania-unique appearance through various cultural or economic influences.

Socialist classicism arrived during the communist era in Albania after the Second World War. At this period many socialist-styled complexes, wide roads and factories were constructed, while town squares were redesigned and numerous of historic and important buildings demolished.

Albanian folk music is a prominent part of the national identity, and continues to play a major part in overall Albanian music.

Folk music can be divided into two stylistic groups, mainly the northern Gheg varieties, and southern Lab and Tosk varieties. Northern and southern traditions are contrasted by a rugged tone from the north, and the more relaxed southern form of music.

Many songs concern events from Albanian history and culture , including traditional themes of honour, hospitality, treachery, and revenge. Several gramophone compilations were recorded at the time by the three artists, which eventually led to the recognition of Albanian iso-polyphony as a UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage.

Every cultural and geographical region of Albania has its own specific variety of costume that vary in style, material, color, shape, detail, and form.

Some elderly people continue to wear traditional clothing in their daily lives. Clothing was traditionally made mainly from local materials such as leather, wool, linen, hemp fiber, and silk; Albanian textiles are still embroidered in elaborate ancient patterns.

The Albanian language comprises an independent branch and is a language isolate within the Indo-European family of languages; it is not connected to any other known living language in Europe.

Its origin is conclusively unknown, but it is believed to have descended from an ancient Paleo-Balkan language.

The cultural renaissance was first of all expressed through the development of the Albanian language in the area of church texts and publications, mainly of the Catholic region in the northern of Albania, but also of the Orthodox in the south.

The Protestant reforms invigorated hopes for the development of the local language and literary tradition, when cleric Gjon Buzuku brought into the Albanian language the Catholic liturgy , trying to do for the Albanian language, what Martin Luther did for the German language.

Meshari The Missal written by Gjon Buzuku was published in and is considered as one of the first literary work of written Albanian during the Middle Ages.

The refined level of the language and the stabilised orthography must be the result of an earlier tradition of written Albanian, a tradition that is not well understood.

However, there is some fragmented evidence, pre-dating Buzuku, which indicates that Albanian was written from at least the 14th century.

Albanian writings from these centuries must not have been religious texts only, but historical chronicles too. The History of Skanderbeg is still the foundation of Skanderbeg studies and is considered an Albanian cultural treasure, vital to the formation of Albanian national self-consciousness.

The most famous Albanian writer in the 20th and 21st century is probably Ismail Kadare. He has been mentioned as a possible recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature several times.

The first Albanian films were mostly documentaries; the first was about the Monastir Congress that sanctioned the Albanian alphabet in This was followed by the first Albanian epic film , the Great Warrior Skanderbeg , a cooperation with Soviet artists chronicling the life and fight of the Albanian national hero Skanderbeg.

By , about movies had been produced, and Albania had over theaters. With the economic transition after the collapse of communism in the s, the Kinostudio was broken up and privatised.

A new National Center of Cinematography was established, while cities built modern cinema theatres showing mostly American movies.

The Tirana International Film Festival was established in and has become the premier and largest film festival in the country as well as in the Balkans.

Albania participated at the Olympic Games in for the first time. The country made their Winter Olympic Games debut in Albania missed the next four games, two of them due to the and boycotts, but returned for the games in Barcelona.

Since then, Albania have participated in all games. Albania normally competes in events that include swimming, athletics, weightlifting, shooting and wrestling.

The country have been represented by the National Olympic Committee of Albania since The nation has participated at the Mediterranean Games since the games of in Syria.

The Albanian athletes have won a total of 43 8 gold, 17 silver and 18 bronze medals from to Football is by far the most popular sport in Albania.

Albania scored their first ever goal in a major tournament and secured their first ever win in European Championship when they beat Romania by 1—0 in a UEFA Euro match on 19 June Weightlifting is one of the most successful individual sport for the Albanians, with the national team winning medals at the European Weightlifting Championships and the rest international competitions.

Albanian weightlifters have won a total of 16 medals at the European Championships with 1 of them being gold, 7 silver and 8 bronze. In the World Weightlifting Championships , the Albanian weightlifting team has won in a gold in a silver and in a bronze medal.

Historically, the Albanian people have established several communities in many regions throughout Southern Europe.

The Albanian diaspora has been formed since the late Middle Ages , when they emigrated to places such as Italy, especially in Sicily and Calabria , and Greece to escape either various socio-political difficulties or the Ottoman conquest of Albania.

Albanian minorities are present in the neighboring territories such as the west of North Macedonia , the east of Montenegro , Kosovo in its entirety and southern Serbia.

In Kosovo , Albanians make up the largest ethnic group in the country. Altogether, the number of ethnic Albanian living abroad its territory is estimated to be higher than the total population inside the territory of Albania.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For other uses, see Albania disambiguation. Country in southeastern Europe.

Greek Aromanian Macedonian others. Main article: Etymology of Albania. Main article: History of Albania. See also: Timeline of Albanian history.

Main article: Prehistory of Albania. Main article: Antiquity in Albania. Main article: Albania in the Middle Ages. Main article: Albania under the Ottoman Empire.

See also: Albanian rebellion against the Ottoman Empire. Main article: Albanian Renaissance. See also: League of Prizren. Main article: Independent Albania.

See also: Albanian Declaration of Independence. Main article: First Republic of Albania. Main article: Communism in Albania. Further information: Bunkers in Albania.

Main article: Fall of communism in Albania. Further information: Pyramid schemes and civil war of Main article: Geography of Albania.

Main article: Climate of Albania. Main article: Biodiversity of Albania. See also: Ecoregions in Albania. Main article: Protected areas of Albania.

See also: National parks of Albania. Main article: Politics of Albania. See also: Government of Albania. Main article: Foreign relations of Albania.

Main article: Armed Forces of Albania. Main article: Counties of Albania. See also: Municipalities of Albania. Main article: Economy of Albania.

Main article: Agriculture in Albania. See also: Category:Mines in Albania. See also: Banking , Telecommunications , and Tourism in Albania.

Main article: Transport in Albania. Main article: Education in Albania. Main articles: Renewable energy and Oil fields in Albania. Main articles: Science and technology and Media in Albania.

Main article: Health in Albania. Main article: Demography of Albania. See also: Albanian people. It has been suggested that this section be split out into another article titled Minorities of Albania.

Discuss October Distribution of ethnic groups within Albania, as of the census. Districts colored gray are those where a majority of people did not declare an ethnicity the question was optional.

The census was criticized and boycotted by minorities in Albania. Main article: Languages of Albania. See also: Albanian language. One road sign in Albanian and a minority language Macedonian and one in Albanian and a foreign language for tourists English in Pustec left Road sign in Albanian and a minority language Greek in Goranxi right.

Main article: Religion in Albania. This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.

July Christianity No Denomination 5. Irreligion 2. Unclear Main article: Culture of Albania. Main article: National symbols of Albania.

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Albanian cuisine. Main articles: Albanian art and architecture.

Main article: Music of Albania. Main article: Traditional Albanian clothing. October Learn how and when to remove this template message.

Main article: Albanian literature. Main article: Cinema of Albania. Main articles: Albanian diaspora and Albanian communities. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February , but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory.

The two governments began to normalise relations in , as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo is currently recognized as an independent state by 97 out of the United Nations member states.

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London: Duckworth. Ference Chronology of 20th century eastern European history. Detroit [u. February 28 George Zographos, a former foreign minister of Greece, proclaims at Gjirokaster the establishment of the Autonomous Republic of Northern Epirus, with Zographos as president.

He notifies the International Commission that his government has been established because the Great Powers have not provided the Greeks in southern Albania any guarantees for the protection of the life, property and religious freedom, and ethnic existence.

Archived from the original on 1 June Retrieved 28 January Thousands of muslim peasants, The Albanians: a modern history. He gathered round him a group of discontented Muslim priests Archiv und Forschung.

Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag. The Albanians: A Modern History. The nationalist Balli Kombetar, which had fought against Italy, made a deal with the German invaders, and formed a "neutral" government in Tirana which Retrieved 22 November Retrieved 14 March Comparative Economic Systems.

Ardent Media. Retrieved 11 April Historical Dictionary of Albania. Historical Dictionaries of Europe, No. Finance and Development.

Cambridge Journal of Economics. Cultural Anthropology. Retrieved 1 December Calhoun Naval Postgraduate School.

Retrieved 3 August European Commission. Archived from the original on 26 June Comprehensive Catalog. Geological Survey. Exit News. Ministry of Health and Social Protection.

Archived from the original on 23 July Deutsche Welle DW. A2 CNN. Anadolu Agency AA. Note : See data for confirmed cases and death cases from 28 July Archived from the original PDF on 30 July Retrieved 30 July Archived from the original PDF on 24 July New Scientist.

Situated on the shores of Lake Ohrid, the town of Ohrid is one of the oldest human settlements in Europe; Lake Ohrid is a superlative natural phenomenon, providing refuge for numerous endemic and relict freshwater species of flora and fauna dating from the tertiary period.

As a deep and ancient lake of tectonic origin, Lake Ohrid has existed continuously for approximately two to three million years.

Archived from the original on 14 September Retrieved 3 June Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research. Archived from the original on 7 August BirdLife International.

National Agency of Protected Areas. Ministry of Tourism and Environment. Archived from the original on 31 August Retrieved 4 January The territory of Albania can be divided into four ecoregions: Dinaric Alpine mixed forests in the far north.

Balcanic mixed forest in the north-east. Pindus mountain mixed forests covering the central and southeast mountains. Illyrian deciduous forest covering the rest of the country.

Archived from the original PDF on 14 October Archived from the original PDF on 29 May Retrieved 10 September Retrieved 4 April Relations With Albania".

Retrieved 26 September Archived from the original on 28 July Southeast European Times. Retrieved 29 December Government of Albania. Archived from the original PDF on 30 June Retrieved 23 November Archived from the original on 9 June Retrieved 27 September Archived from the original on 24 May Archived from the original on 25 September Retrieved 7 December Archived from the original on 13 January Retrieved 23 July Archived from the original PDF on 15 February Retrieved 27 August Retrieved 15 February Archived from the original on 14 May Retrieved 15 August Retrieved 22 July World Diplomacy.

Retrieved 1 August Archived from the original PDF on 27 December Retrieved 14 December Archived from the original PDF on 20 December Retrieved 6 May Retrieved 15 June University of Cincinnati.

Archived from the original on 10 September Retrieved 17 June Retrieved 10 May The Sotheby's Wine Encyclopedia. Dorling Kindersley. Food and Agriculture Organization.

Archived from the original on 20 May Retrieved 18 April Travel Gazette. Retrieved 9 February Retrieved 7 August The New York Times.

Archived from the original on 9 August Retrieved 8 July Retrieved 12 January Archived from the original on 28 September October February Lorenc Gordani 21 June Archived from the original on 28 March Archived from the original on 17 November Retrieved 5 May World Health Organization.

March Archived PDF from the original on 27 December New York University. Bloomberg L. World Health Organisation. Retrieved 26 February Migration Policy Institute.

Gelbe Karte für Elseid Hysaj (Albanien). 9. Tor für Frankreich, durch Corentin Tolisso. 1. Spielbeginn. Ort. Das Stadion. Gegner aus UEFA, Sp. S, U, N, Tore. Die Bilanz gegen, Andorra, 5, 3, 1, 1, Die Bilanz gegen, Armenien, 5, 3, 1, 1, Die Bilanz gegen, Aserbaidschan, 5, 3. Albanien vs. Frankreich: TV, LIVE-STREAM, Highlights, TICKER, Aufstellungen und Co. - hier seht Ihr die EM-Qualifikation live. Goal. Ihr Ziel: Terrorangriffe gegen die MEK im Balkanland zu organisieren. Albaniens Polizei sieht in der Gruppe einen Teil der "Quds" (arabisch für. Genaue Prognose zum Albanien vs. Andorra Tipp am Neben dem Tipp, Quoten und einer Prognose informieren wir Sie auch über.

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Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. The Greek and Latin loans have undergone most of the far-reaching phonological changes which have so altered the shape of inherited words while Slavic and Turkish words do not show those changes.

Thus Albanian must have acquired much of its present form by the time Slavs entered into Balkans in the fifth and sixth centuries AD [ Leiden: Brill.

It must be relatively old, that is, dating back into the post-Roman first millennium. Brussels: European Commission.

Retrieved 5 December Archived from the original on 21 January Retrieved 2 January The Albanian Language.

Statistics of Italy. Retrieved 1 April Archived from the original PDF on 16 September Retrieved 9 July There are upwards of 5 million ethnic Albanians in the Turkish Republic; however, the vast majority of this population is assimilated and no longer possesses fluency in the language, though a vibrant Albanian community maintains its distinct identity in Istanbul to this day.

Egypt also lays claim to some 18, Albanians, supposedly lingering remnants of Mohammad Ali's army. European Journal of Language and Literature.

Retrieved 29 March Albanian Alphabets: Borrowed and Invented. Indo-European language and culture: an introduction.

Retrieved 28 May London: Routledge, Migrations and invasions in Greece and adjacent areas. Noyes Press. Historical Dictionary of Albania.

The Early medieval Balkans. University of Michigan Press, Woodard The ancient languages of Europe. The modern Albanian language, it has been conjectured, is descendent directly from ancient Illyrian Retrieved 31 March It is generally accepted that Albanians continue one of the ancient languages of the Balkans, although scholars disagree on which language they spoke and what area of the Balkans they occupied before the Slavs' migration to the Balkans.

The most probable predecessor of Albanian was Illyrian, since much of the present-day Albania was inhabited by the Illyrians during the Antiquity, but the comparison of the two languages is impossible because almost nothing is known about Illyrian It is a-priori less probable to assume that a single language was spoken in the whole Illyricum, from the river Arsia in Istria, to Epirus in Greece, when such a linguistic uniformity is found nowhere else in Europe before the Roman conquest.

Moreover, the examination of personal names and toponyms from Illyricum shows that several onomastic areas can be distinguished, and these onomastic areas just might correspond to different languages spoken in ancient Illyricum.

General issues and non-Germanic Languages. Historical Linguistics Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing.

Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter. The evolution of Albanian". De Gruyter Mouton. Mallory; Douglas Q. Adams Encyclopedia of Indo-European culture. International Journal of the Sociology of Language.

Retrieved 26 May Tirana: Academy of Sciences of Albania. A concise historical grammar of the Albanian language: reconstruction of Proto-Albanian.

Retrieved 16 December Albanian literature: a short history. Institute of Acoustics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 15 December Bloomington: Indiana University Pub.

National Library of Albania. Retrieved 14 May Page 6. Trask's Historical Linguistics. Albanian seems to have lost more than 90 per cent of its original vocabulary in favour of loans from Latin, Greek, Hungarian, Slavonic, Italian and Turkish.

University of Texas at Austin. Retrieved 27 January Instytut Slawistyki Polskiej Akademii Nauk, Page "Even according to Albanian linguists, Albanian vocabulary is composed in 60 percent of Latin words from different periods When albanological studies were just emerging, it happened that Albanian was classified as a Romance language.

Already there exists the idea of a common origin of both Albanian and Rumanian languages. The Rumanian grammar is almost identical to that of Albanian, but it may be as well the effect of later convergence within the Balkan Sprachbund..

Page Brill, Leiden. Alternative Transport. Mann The Etruscans begin to speak. Souvenir Press. Archived from the original on 17 June The Illyrians: history and culture.

Language, Volumes 1—3. Linguistic Society of America. Millennium Studies. Homeric whispers: intimations of orthodoxy in the Iliad and Odyssey. Albanien: Schätze aus dem Land der Skipetaren.

Hamburg: Buske. Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung. Slavic-Albanian language contact, convergence, and coexistence.

The number of loanwords is not necessarily a compelling argument for geographical placement, as loanwords may be replaced in subsequent developments of the language especially considering the copious borrowing that Albanian later did from Latin and Slavic before any lexicon of Albanian was ever compiled The loan words from Greek and Latin date back to before the Christian era and suggest that the ancestors of the Albanians must have occupied Albania by then to have absorbed such loans from their historical neighbors.

As the Illyrians occupied the Albanian territory at this time, they are the most likely recipients of such loans. Latin loanwords are of extreme importance for the history of Albanian phonology, especially its vocalism.

The duration of the borrowing was so long that loanwords reflect several distinct chronological stages. One other point that some scholars make is the fact that Albanian and Romanian share many lexical items; this has led some to believe that Albanian originated east of its present geographical spread Georgiev ; Hamp Les mots latins de l'albanais.

Paris: L'Harmattan. Wir sind die Deinen. Harrassowitz Verlag. Articles related to the Albanian language. Albanian language. Transitional dialect.

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Languages of Kosovo. Albanian Serbian. Bosnian Gorani Romani Turkish. See Also: Minority languages of Kosovo. Languages of North Macedonia.

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This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

Part of a series on. Voiceless bilabial plosive. Voiced bilabial plosive. Voiceless alveolar plosive. Voiced alveolar plosive.

Voiceless velar plosive. Voiced velar plosive. Voiceless alveolar affricate. Voiced alveolar affricate.

Voiceless postalveolar affricate. Voiced postalveolar affricate. Voiceless palatal affricate. Voiced palatal affricate.

Voiceless labiodental fricative. Voiced labiodental fricative. Voiceless dental fricative. Voiced dental fricative. Voiceless alveolar fricative.

Voiced alveolar fricative. Voiceless postalveolar fricative. Voiced postalveolar fricative. Voiceless glottal fricative.

Alveolar lateral approximant. Velarized alveolar lateral approximant. Palatal approximant. Close front unrounded vowel.

Open-mid front unrounded vowel. Open central unrounded vowel. Open-mid back rounded vowel. Close front rounded vowel. Close back rounded vowel.

The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February , but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory.

A biodiversity hotspot , Albania possesses an exceptionally rich and contrasting biodiversity on account of its geographical location at the center of the Mediterranean Sea and the great diversity in its climatic , geological and hydrological conditions.

The estuaries, wetlands and lakes are extraordinarily important for the greater flamingo , pygmy cormorant and the extremely rare and perhaps the most iconic bird of the country, the dalmatian pelican.

In terms of phytogeography , Albania is part of the Boreal Kingdom and stretches specifically within the Illyrian province of the Circumboreal and Mediterranean Region.

Its territory can be subdivided into four terrestrial ecoregions of the Palearctic realm — the Illyrian deciduous forests , Balkan mixed forests , Pindus Mountains mixed forests and Dinaric Mountains mixed forests.

Approximately 3, different species of plants can be found in Albania which refers principally to a Mediterranean and Eurasian character. The country maintains a vibrant tradition of herbal and medicinal practices.

At the minimum plants growing locally are used in the preparation of herbs and medicines. In the Environmental Performance Index , Albania was ranked 23rd out of countries in the world.

The protected areas of Albania are the system through the Albanian government protects, maintains and displays some of the country's most impressive and treasured environments.

There are 15 national parks , 4 ramsar sites , 1 biosphere reserve and other types of conservation reserves across Albania all of them depicting a huge variety of natural sceneries ranging from imposing mountains to picturesque coasts.

Albania has fifteen officially designated national parks scattered across its territory. Further south sprawls the Butrint National Park on a peninsula that is surrounded by the Lake of Butrint and Channel of Vivari on the eastern half of the Straits of Corfu.

Dajti National Park equipped with a cable car and trails to some spectacular scenery is a popular retreat among locals and visitors in the capital, Tirana.

Albania is a parliamentary constitutional republic and sovereign state whose politics operate under a framework laid out in the constitution wherein the president functions as the head of state and the prime minister as the head of government.

The government is based on the separation and balancing of powers among the legislative , judiciary and executive.

The civil law , codified and based on the Napoleonic Code , is divided between courts with regular civil and criminal jurisdiction and administrative courts.

The judicial power is vested in the supreme court , constitutional court , appeal court and administrative court.

It carries out nearly all general police duties including criminal investigation, patrol activity, traffic policing and border control. The executive power is exercised by the president and prime minister whereby the power of the president is very limited.

The president is the commander-in-chief of the military and the representative of the unity of the Albanian people.

The prime minister, appointed by the president and approved by the parliament, is authorized to constitute the cabinet. The cabinet is composed primarily of the prime minister inclusively its deputies and ministers.

In the time since the end of communism and isolationism , Albania has extended its responsibilities and position in continental and international affairs, developing and establishing friendly relations with other countries around the world.

Its main objectives are the accession into the European Union , the international recognition of Kosovo and the expulsion of Cham Albanians as well as helping and protecting the rights of the Albanians in Kosovo , Montenegro , North Macedonia , Greece , Serbia , Italy and Diaspora.

The admission of Albania into the North Atlantic Treaty Organization was considered by Albanian politicians as a primary ambition for the country.

The country has been extensively engaged with the organization and has maintained its position as a stability factor and a strong ally of the United States and European Union in the troubled and divided region of the Balkans.

Albania and Kosovo are culturally, socially and economically very closely rooted due to the Albanian majority population in Kosovo.

In , the country contributed in supporting allied efforts to end the humanitarian tragedy in Kosovo and secure the peace after the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia.

Albania enjoys friendly and close ties with the United States ever after it supported the country's independence and its democracy. In , Albania welcomed George W.

Bush who became the first President of the United States ever to visit the country. Albania has been an active member of the United Nations since They country took on membership for the United Nations Economic and Social Council from to as well as in They are led by a commander-in-chief under the supervision of the Ministry of Defense and by the President as the supreme commander during wartime however, in times of peace its powers are executed through the Prime Minister and the Defence Minister.

The chief purpose of the armed forces of Albania is the defence of the independence, the sovereignty and the territorial integrity of the country, as well as the participation in humanitarian, combat, non-combat and peace support operations.

Albania has committed to increase the participations in multinational operations. Albania reduced the number of active troops from 65, in to 14, in In the s, the country scrapped enormous amounts of obsolete hardware from China, such as tanks and SAM systems.

Increasing the military budget was one of the most important conditions for NATO integration. Military spending has generally been low.

As of military spending was an estimated 1. It is divided into three regions, the Northern , Central and Southern Region , which are each made up of a number of counties and municipalities.

Nonetheless, the highest level of administrative divisions are the twelve constituent counties of Albania.

The counties are further subdivided into 61 municipalities. The counties were created on 31 July to replace the 36 former districts.

The defunct municipalities are known as neighborhoods or villages. The municipalities are the first level of local governance, responsible for local needs and law enforcement.

The largest county in Albania, by population, is Tirana County with over , people. The transition from a socialist planned economy to a capitalist mixed economy in Albania has been largely successful.

In , it had the 4th lowest unemployment rate in the Balkans with an estimated value of The lek ALL is the country's currency and is pegged at approximately ,51 lek per euro.

The country's most important infrastructure facilities take course through both of the cities, connecting the north to the south as well as the west to the east.

The economy is expected to expand in the near term, driven by a recovery in consumption and robust investments. Growth is projected to be 3.

Agriculture in the country is based on small to medium-sized family-owned dispersed units. It remains a significant sector of the economy of Albania.

One of the earliest farming sites in Europe has been found in the southeast of the country. Albania produces significant amounts of fruits apples, olives , grapes, oranges, lemons, apricots , peaches , cherries , figs , sour cherries , plums , and strawberries , vegetables potatoes, tomatoes, maize, onions, and wheat , sugar beets , tobacco, meat, honey , dairy products , traditional medicine and aromatic plants.

Further, the country is a worldwide significant producer of salvia , rosemary and yellow gentian. The World Bank and European Community economists report that, Albania's fishing industry has good potential to generate export earnings because prices in the nearby Greek and Italian markets are many times higher than those in the Albanian market.

The fish available off the coasts of the country are carp , trout , sea bream , mussels and crustaceans. Albania has one of Europe's longest histories of viticulture.

The oldest found seeds in the region are 4, to 6, years old. The secondary sector of Albania have undergone many changes and diversification, since the collapse of the communist regime in the country.

It is very diversified, from electronics , manufacturing , [] textiles , to food , cement , mining , [] and energy. Albania has the second largest oil deposits in the Balkan peninsula after Romania , and the largest oil reserves [] in Europe.

The Albpetrol company is owned by the Albanian state and monitors the state petroleum agreements in the country.

The textile industry has seen an extensive expansion by approaching companies from the European Union EU in Albania. Albania is a significant minerals producer and is ranked among the world's leading chromium producers and exporters.

The tertiary sector represents the fastest growing sector of the country's economy. Previously one of the most isolated and controlled countries in the world, telecommunication industry represents nowadays another major contributor to the sector.

It developed largely through privatization and subsequent investment by both domestic and foreign investors. Tourism is recognised as an industry of national importance and has been steadily increasing since the beginnings of the 21st century.

The increase of foreign visitors has been dramatic. Albania had only , visitors in , while in had an estimated 4. In , tourism in summer increased by 25 percent in contrast the previous year according to the country's tourism agency.

The bulk of the tourist industry is concentrated along the Adriatic and Ionian Sea in the west of the country. However, the Albanian Riviera in the southwest has the most scenic and pristine beaches, and is often called the pearl of the Albanian coast.

Its coastline has a considerable length of kilometres miles. Some parts of this seaside are very clean ecologically, which represent in this prospective unexplored areas, which are very rare within the Mediterranean.

Transportation in Albania is managed within the functions of the Ministry of Infrastructure and Energy and entities such as the Albanian Road Authority ARRSH , responsible for the construction and maintenance of the highways and motorways in Albania, as well as the Albanian Aviation Authority AAC , with the responsibility of coordinating civil aviation and airports in the country.

The international airport of Tirana is the premier air gateway to the country, and is also the principal hub for Albania's national flag carrier , Air Albania.

The airport carried more than 3. The highways and motorways in Albania are properly maintained and often still under construction and renovation.

The Autostrada 1 A1 represents an integral transportation corridor in Albania and the longest motorway of the country. As of [update] , it is as one of the largest passenger ports on the Adriatic Sea with annual passenger volume of approximately 1.

The principal ports serve a system of ferries connecting Albania with numerous islands and coastal cities in Croatia, Greece and Italy.

The rail network is administered by the national railway company Hekurudha Shqiptare which was extensively promoted by the dictator Enver Hoxha.

There has been a considerable increase in private car ownership and bus usage while rail use decreased since the end of communism. The specific location of this railway, connecting the most populated urban areas in Albania, merely makes it an important economic development project.

In the country, education is secular, free, compulsory and based on three levels of education which is segmented in primary, secondary and tertiary education.

The use of the Albanian language serves as the primary language of instruction in all academic institutions across the country. Compulsory primary education is divided into two levels, elementary and secondary school, from grade one to five and six to nine, respectively.

Upon successful completion of primary education, all pupils are entitled to attend high schools with specializing in any particular field including arts, sports , languages , sciences or technology.

The country's tertiary education, an optional stage of formal learning following secondary education, has undergone a thorough reformation and restructuring in compliance with the principles of the Bologna Process.

There is a significant number of private and public institutions of higher education well dispersed in the major cities of Albania.

The study of a first foreign language is mandatory and are taught most often at elementary and bilingual schools. Albania is mostly dependent on hydroelectricity.

Both are expected to be completed between and Albania has considerably large deposits of oil. It has the 10th largest oil reserves in Europe and the 58th in the world.

Although, Patos-Marinza , also located within the area, is the largest onshore oil field in Europe. With the political and economic changings in , human resources in sciences and technology have drastically decreased.

Albania has an estimated media outlets, including 66 radio stations and 67 television stations, with 65 national and more than 50 cable television stations.

Radio began officially in with the founding of Radio Televizioni Shqiptar , while television broadcasting began in The constitution of Albania guarantees equal, free and universal health care for all its citizens.

The life expectancy at birth in Albania is at In , the country had the 55th best healthcare performance in the world, as defined by the World Health Organization.

In , the country had a fruit and vegetable supply of grams per capita per day, the fifth highest supply in Europe.

The overall life expectancy at birth is The explanation for the recent population decrease is the fall of communism in Albania in the late twentieth century.

That period was marked by large economic mass emigration from Albania to Greece , Italy and the United States. Four decades of total isolation from the world, combined with its disastrous economic, social and political situation, had caused this exodus.

The external migration was prohibited outright during the communist era, while internal migration was quite limited, hence this was a new phenomenon.

At least, , people left Albania during this period, with about , of them settling in Greece. About The three largest counties by population account for half of the total population.

Issues of ethnicity are a delicate topic and subject to debate. Contrary to official statistics that show an over 97 per cent Albanian majority in the country, minority groups such as Greeks , Macedonians , Montenegrins , Roma and Aromanians have frequently disputed the official numbers, asserting a higher percentage of the country's population.

According to the disputed census, ethnic affiliation was as follows: Albanians 2,, The estimates vary between 60, and , ethnic Greeks in Albania.

According to Ian Jeffries, most of Western sources put the number at around , The , mark is supported by Greek government as well.

The US State Department uses 1. This is claimed to be an attempt to intimidate minorities into declaring Albanian ethnicity, according to them the Albanian government has stated that it will jail anyone who does not participate in the census or refuse to declare his or her ethnicity.

However, they are not forced to answer these sensitive questions". Greek representatives form part of the Albanian parliament and the government has invited Albanian Greeks to register, as the only way to improve their status.

The official language of the country is Albanian which is spoken by the vast majority of the country's population.

The Shkumbin river is the rough dividing line between the two dialects. Also a dialect of Greek that preserves features now lost in standard modern Greek is spoken in areas inhabited by the Greek minority.

According to the population census, 2,, or In recent years, the shrinking number of pupils in schools dedicated to the Greek minority has caused problems for teachers.

Italian and French have had a stable interest, while Greek has lost most of the interest. The trends are linked with cultural and economic factors.

Greek is the second most-spoken language in the country, with 0. The young people have shown a growing interest in German language in recent years.

Some of them go to Germany for studying or various experiences. Albania and Germany have agreements for cooperating in helping young people of the two countries know both cultures better.

Young people, attracted by economic importance of Turkish investments and common values between the two nations, gain from cultural and academic collaboration of universities.

Albania, a religiously diverse country, is a secular state with no official religion. Freedom of religion , belief and conscience are guaranteed guaranteed under the country's constitution.

It is widely accepted that Albanians generally value a peaceful coexistence among the believers of different religious communities in the country.

At this point, they were mostly Christianized. Islam arrived for the first time in the late 9th century to the region, when Arabs raided parts of the eastern banks of the Adriatic Sea.

During modern times , the Albanian republican, monarchic and later communist regimes followed a systematic policy of separating religion from official functions and cultural life.

The country has never had an official religion either as a republic or as a kingdom. In the 20th century, the clergy of all faiths was weakened under the monarchy and ultimately eradicated during the s and s, under the state policy of obliterating all organized religion from the territories of Albania.

The communist regime persecuted and suppressed religious observance and institutions and entirely banned religion. The country was then officially declared to be the world's first atheist state.

Although, the country's religious freedom has returned, since the end of communism. Islam survived communist era persecution and reemerged in the modern era as a practiced religion in Albania.

Due to that, he was arrested and imprisoned by the Ottoman authorities in First evangelical Protestants appeared in the 19th century and the Evangelical Alliance was founded in Nowadays, it has member congregations from different Protestant denominations.

Following the mass emigration to Israel, since the fall of communism, only Albanian Jews are left in the country.

As of the census , there were 1,, Orthodox and Bektashis are mostly found in the south, whereas Catholics mainly live in the north.

Albania shares many symbols associated with its history, culture and belief. These include the colours red and black, animals such as the golden eagle living across the country, costumes such as the fustanella , plis and opinga which are worn to special events and celebrations, plants such as the olive and red poppy growing as well across the country.

The flag of Albania is a red flag with a black double-headed eagle in the centre. Throughout the centuries, Albanian cuisine has been widely influenced by Albanian culture , geography and history , and as such, different parts of the country enjoy specific regional cuisines.

Cooking traditions especially vary between the north and the south, owing to differing topography and climate that essentially contribute to the excellent growth conditions for a wide array of herbs, fruits, and vegetables.

Albanians produce and use many varieties of fruits such as lemons , oranges, figs , and most notably, olives , which are perhaps the most important element of Albanian cooking.

Spices and other herbs such as basil , lavender , mint , oregano , rosemary , and thyme are widely used, as are vegetables such as garlic, onions, peppers , potatoes, tomatoes, as well as legumes of all types.

With a coastline along the Adriatic and Ionian in the Mediterranean Sea , fish, crustaceans , and seafood are a popular and an integral part of the Albanian diet.

Otherwise, lamb is the traditional meat for different holidays and religious festivals for both Christians and Muslims , although poultry, beef, and pork are also in plentiful supply.

Petulla, a traditional fried dough, is also a popular speciality, and is served with powdered sugar or feta cheese and different sorts of fruit jams.

Krofne , similar to Berliner doughnuts , are filled with jam, or chocolate and often eaten during cold winter months. Coffee is an integral part of the Albanian lifestyle, and Albania has more coffee houses per capita than any other country in the world.

It is cultivated across Southern Albania and noted for its medicinal properties. Black tea with a slice of lemon and sugar, milk, or honey is also popular.

Albanian wine is also common throughout the country, and has been cultivated for thousands of years. Albania has a long and ancient history of wine production, and belongs to the Old World of wine producing countries.

The artistic history of Albania has been particularly influenced by a multitude of ancient and medieval people , traditions and religions.

It covers a broad spectrum with mediums and disciplines that include painting, pottery , sculpture, ceramics and architecture all of them exemplifying a great variety in style and shape, in different regions and period.

The rise of the Byzantine and Ottoman Empire in the Middle Ages was accompanied by a corresponding growth in Christian and Islamic art in the lands of Albania which are apparent in examples of architecture and mosaics throughout the country.

The architecture of Albania reflects the legacy of various civilizations tracing back to the classical antiquity. Major cities in Albania have evolved from within the castle to include dwellings, religious and commercial structures, with constant redesigning of town squares and evolution of building techniques.

Nowadays, the cities and towns reflect a whole spectrum of various architectural styles. In the 20th century, many historical as well as sacred buildings bearing the ancient influence were demolished during the communist era.

Considering the long period of rule of the Byzantine Empire , they introduced castles, citadels, churches and monasteries with spectacular wealth of visible murals and frescos.

The 20th century brought new architectural styles such as the modern Italian style , which is present in Tirana such as the Skanderbeg Square and Ministries.

Moreover, other towns received their present-day Albania-unique appearance through various cultural or economic influences. Socialist classicism arrived during the communist era in Albania after the Second World War.

At this period many socialist-styled complexes, wide roads and factories were constructed, while town squares were redesigned and numerous of historic and important buildings demolished.

Albanian folk music is a prominent part of the national identity, and continues to play a major part in overall Albanian music. Folk music can be divided into two stylistic groups, mainly the northern Gheg varieties, and southern Lab and Tosk varieties.

Northern and southern traditions are contrasted by a rugged tone from the north, and the more relaxed southern form of music.

Many songs concern events from Albanian history and culture , including traditional themes of honour, hospitality, treachery, and revenge.

Several gramophone compilations were recorded at the time by the three artists, which eventually led to the recognition of Albanian iso-polyphony as a UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage.

Every cultural and geographical region of Albania has its own specific variety of costume that vary in style, material, color, shape, detail, and form.

Some elderly people continue to wear traditional clothing in their daily lives. Clothing was traditionally made mainly from local materials such as leather, wool, linen, hemp fiber, and silk; Albanian textiles are still embroidered in elaborate ancient patterns.

The Albanian language comprises an independent branch and is a language isolate within the Indo-European family of languages; it is not connected to any other known living language in Europe.

Its origin is conclusively unknown, but it is believed to have descended from an ancient Paleo-Balkan language. The cultural renaissance was first of all expressed through the development of the Albanian language in the area of church texts and publications, mainly of the Catholic region in the northern of Albania, but also of the Orthodox in the south.

The Protestant reforms invigorated hopes for the development of the local language and literary tradition, when cleric Gjon Buzuku brought into the Albanian language the Catholic liturgy , trying to do for the Albanian language, what Martin Luther did for the German language.

Meshari The Missal written by Gjon Buzuku was published in and is considered as one of the first literary work of written Albanian during the Middle Ages.

The refined level of the language and the stabilised orthography must be the result of an earlier tradition of written Albanian, a tradition that is not well understood.

However, there is some fragmented evidence, pre-dating Buzuku, which indicates that Albanian was written from at least the 14th century.

Albanian writings from these centuries must not have been religious texts only, but historical chronicles too.

The History of Skanderbeg is still the foundation of Skanderbeg studies and is considered an Albanian cultural treasure, vital to the formation of Albanian national self-consciousness.

The most famous Albanian writer in the 20th and 21st century is probably Ismail Kadare. He has been mentioned as a possible recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature several times.

The first Albanian films were mostly documentaries; the first was about the Monastir Congress that sanctioned the Albanian alphabet in This was followed by the first Albanian epic film , the Great Warrior Skanderbeg , a cooperation with Soviet artists chronicling the life and fight of the Albanian national hero Skanderbeg.

By , about movies had been produced, and Albania had over theaters. With the economic transition after the collapse of communism in the s, the Kinostudio was broken up and privatised.

A new National Center of Cinematography was established, while cities built modern cinema theatres showing mostly American movies.

The Tirana International Film Festival was established in and has become the premier and largest film festival in the country as well as in the Balkans.

Albania participated at the Olympic Games in for the first time. The country made their Winter Olympic Games debut in Albania missed the next four games, two of them due to the and boycotts, but returned for the games in Barcelona.

Since then, Albania have participated in all games. Albania normally competes in events that include swimming, athletics, weightlifting, shooting and wrestling.

The country have been represented by the National Olympic Committee of Albania since The nation has participated at the Mediterranean Games since the games of in Syria.

The Albanian athletes have won a total of 43 8 gold, 17 silver and 18 bronze medals from to Football is by far the most popular sport in Albania.

Albania scored their first ever goal in a major tournament and secured their first ever win in European Championship when they beat Romania by 1—0 in a UEFA Euro match on 19 June Weightlifting is one of the most successful individual sport for the Albanians, with the national team winning medals at the European Weightlifting Championships and the rest international competitions.

Albanian weightlifters have won a total of 16 medals at the European Championships with 1 of them being gold, 7 silver and 8 bronze. In the World Weightlifting Championships , the Albanian weightlifting team has won in a gold in a silver and in a bronze medal.

Historically, the Albanian people have established several communities in many regions throughout Southern Europe.

The Albanian diaspora has been formed since the late Middle Ages , when they emigrated to places such as Italy, especially in Sicily and Calabria , and Greece to escape either various socio-political difficulties or the Ottoman conquest of Albania.

Albanian minorities are present in the neighboring territories such as the west of North Macedonia , the east of Montenegro , Kosovo in its entirety and southern Serbia.

In Kosovo , Albanians make up the largest ethnic group in the country. Altogether, the number of ethnic Albanian living abroad its territory is estimated to be higher than the total population inside the territory of Albania.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For other uses, see Albania disambiguation.

Country in southeastern Europe. Greek Aromanian Macedonian others. Main article: Etymology of Albania. Main article: History of Albania. See also: Timeline of Albanian history.

Main article: Prehistory of Albania. Main article: Antiquity in Albania. Main article: Albania in the Middle Ages. Main article: Albania under the Ottoman Empire.

See also: Albanian rebellion against the Ottoman Empire. Main article: Albanian Renaissance. See also: League of Prizren.

Main article: Independent Albania. See also: Albanian Declaration of Independence. Main article: First Republic of Albania.

Main article: Communism in Albania. Further information: Bunkers in Albania. Main article: Fall of communism in Albania. Further information: Pyramid schemes and civil war of Main article: Geography of Albania.

Main article: Climate of Albania. Main article: Biodiversity of Albania. See also: Ecoregions in Albania. Main article: Protected areas of Albania.

See also: National parks of Albania. Main article: Politics of Albania. See also: Government of Albania. Main article: Foreign relations of Albania.

Main article: Armed Forces of Albania. Main article: Counties of Albania. See also: Municipalities of Albania. Main article: Economy of Albania.

Main article: Agriculture in Albania. See also: Category:Mines in Albania. See also: Banking , Telecommunications , and Tourism in Albania.

Main article: Transport in Albania. Main article: Education in Albania. Your browser is out of date or some of its features are disabled , it may not display this website or some of its parts correctly.

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Albanien Vs Aktuelle Spiele

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